Around the 80% of population are affected by problems with the spine or suffer from back pain.
The vertebral column is constituted by the vertebras, 7 in the cervical zone, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, the sacrum and the coccyx. The spine has four curves in the sagittal (side) plane: two with an anterior convexity (cervical and lumbar lordosis) and two with a posterior convexity (the thoracic kyphosis and at the level of the sacrum and coccyx).
Vertebras are short bones constituted by a body in the front and by a arch in the back. In between the vertebral bodies are the inter-vertebral discs; structures made of a special type of cartilage which assist in stability and movements of the spine as well as working as shock absorbers.
The main functions of the spine are related to support, protection and movement. The lumbar-sacral segment of the spine is the most flexible but also exposed to the most amount of load. This aspect exposes the segment to continuous overloads that can damage vertebral joints, ligaments, discs and muscles which contribute to providing support and stability to this region. The cause of spinal pain is ascertained after a thorough evaluation and careful clinical exam, which may also involve further investigations including X-Rays, a CT scan, MRI and on occasion, nerve conduction studies.
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